(a) Man is usually called 'the highest animal' on the basis of intelligence. What are the specific traits that make him 'the lowest animal' for Mark Twain? 
(b) "The Damned Human Race" was written in the early 1900's. It is true today? 
(a) How does the theme of the tale relate to the subject of language and culture? Discuss with reference to "The Last Lesson" by Alphonse Daudet. 
(b) Does this patriotic tale of a French schoolboy make us conscious about the value of our own native language?
(a) Leacock describes a health maniac as an obsessed person. How do people become obsessed? Are obsessions always bad?
(b) Leacock uses exaggeration in the title of his essay. Where does he use exaggeration and why?
(a) "The Open Window" by H.H. Munro is a story full of suspense and irony that keeps the reader's interest alive till the final sentence. Comment.
(b) Write a brief note on the following characters:
(i) Mrs. Sappleton     (ii) Framton Nuttel
(a) How does Russell define education? 
(b) What defect is inherent in purely classical education? 
(a)  "A cold may be common but has uncommon symptoms, amazing in its diversity". Elaborate with reference to "On a Common Cold" by Osbert Sitwell. 
(b) Point out some World Event, as quoted (referred to) by the writer when cold had played noble and prominent part in history.
(a) What force provides the central conflict of the story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and what is the conflict? 
(b) Give a brief character sketch of Walter Mitty. 
(a) What is the difference between emotional meanings and objective meanings? How do emotional meanings affect our behaviour? 
(b) What is the writer's advice about the use of words?
(a) Recapitulate Lewis's series of reasons for believing that there is "Law of Nature" that there is "real right or wrong" (Right and Wrong by C.S. Lewis) 
(b) Is it right or wrong not to practise ourselves the kind of behaviour we expect from other people?
(a) After his conversion to Islam, the author travelled and worked throughout the Muslim World. Describe the author's experience when he was travelling along the road of life to its end. (End of the Road by Muhammad Asad) 
(b) Reproduce, with your comments and observations, the writer's description of the Holy Kaaba and his reactions in its presence.
(a) "How the Poor Die" by George Orwell is pathetical and critical description of the public ward of the French hospital. Discuss.
(b) How does the French hospital where Orwell stayed, compared with the hospitals in England? 
(a) "The Gray Beginnings" by R.L. Carson is an illustration of the scientifically accurate and lyrically beautiful way in which the writer stretches the reader's imagination by revealing  the magic and mystery of the sea. Elaborate.
(b) What were the effects of "The Birth of the Moon"? 
(a) Discuss the story "August 2026 - There will Come Soft Rains" as an allegory of future. 
(b) What is the significance of the poem in the story?
(a) "In My Day" by Russel Baker, what was Mrs. Baker's Philosophy of life? How did it change in her old age?
(b) Why does the author feel "forever out of touch" with his mother? Does he feel equally out of touch with his children?
(a) "In a way a heavy viewer's life is as imbalanced by his television 'habit' as a drug addict's or an alcholic's. Comment with reference to "T.V. Addiction" by Marie Winn.
(b) What methods could parents or individuals use to prevent or lesson T.V. addiction?

(a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
     Space travel is by far the most expensive type of exploration ever undertaken by man. The vast expenditure of money and human effort now being devoted to projects of putting man into space might well be applied to ends more practically useful and more conducive to human happiness. It is a strange world in which tens of millions of pounds are spent to give one man a ride round the earth at thousands of miles an hour, while beneath him in his orbit live millions for whom life is a daily struggle to win a few coins to buy their bread and butter. The money and effort that go into the development and construction of a single type of space-rocket would more than suffice to rid several countries of such scourge as malaria or typhoid fever, to name only two of diseases that medical science has conquered but which still persist in the world simply because not enough money and effort are devoted to their eradication. Why should the richer countries of the world be pouring their resources into space when poverty and disease on the earth are crying out for relief? One could give a cynical answer to this question and assert that man's expensive adventures into space are merely the by-products of the struggle between great powers for prestige and possible military advantage.
(i) Why is it a strange world?
(ii) Why do malaria  and typhoid still exist in the world?
(iii) Why is man pouring his resources into space?
(vi) Make a precis of the passage and give a suitable title to it.
(b) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
      Very few students have really any clear idea of what science mean. The teaching of science in schools tend to obscure the meaning of science. When pupils at school work for a pass in science subject, they regard it their main business to learn a large number of facts and a smaller number of principles and theories. Now all this is good in its way. A scientist must have a certain number of facts, principles and theories at his finger tips. But science would cease to be science if scientists merely worked from fixed sets of facts and theories. The essence of science is the gathering of new facts and the establishment of new theories. Science has advanced rapidly in recent history because scientists have been greedy for new knowledge, and because they have been so ready to disbelieve in text books of their youth. It is, therefore, most important to give our young students of science an awareness of skepticism and open-mindedness that is part of the very soul of science. Let them not think that any branch of science is a subject that one can sit down and learn. Let them realize that science is essentially a creative activity.
(i) When does science cease to be science?
(ii) What are the two causes of the advancement of science?
(iii) What should we teach to our students of science?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and give a suitable title to it.
(a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
       It is common in our day, as it has been in many other periods of the world's history to suppose that those among us who are wise have seen through all the enthusiasms of earlier times and have become aware that there is nothing left to live for. The men who hold this view are genuinely unhappy but they are proud of their unhappiness which they attribute to the nature of the universe and consider to the only rational attitude for an enlightened man. Their pride on their unhappiness makes people suspicious of its genuineness: they think that man who enjoys being miserable is not miserable. This view is too simple; undoubtedly there is some slight compensation in the feeling of superiority and insight which these sufferers have, but it is not sufficient to make up for the loss of simple pleasure. I do not myself think that there is any superiority rationality in being unhappy. The wise man will be as happy as circumstances permit and if he finds the contemplation of the universe painful beyond a point, he will contemplate something instead. I am persuaded that those who quite sincerely attribute their sorrows to their views about the universe are putting the cart before the horse: the truth is that they are unhappy for some reasons of which they are not aware.
(i) What is common with the wise today to suppose?
(ii) What is the result of pride on unhappiness?
(iii) How can a wise man be happy?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and give a suitable title to it.
(b) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
     Advertising is essentially the art of communication. As such, its origin can be traced right back to the origin of the species. "Advertising colouration" is a familiar biological phrase denoting the colours developed by certain animals to make them stand out against their natural background. It is the direct opposite of camouflage. There is always a message in these colours, such as; "keep away, "mind your step", "darling won't you care for a dance?" While camouflage is tricky and timed, "advertising" is honest, confidant, and forthright, as far as the world of nature goes. In human life, advertising through the mouth must have begun with the beginning of commerce. The tradition is still kept alive by hawkers and street vendors in our towns and villages. As regards advertising through the written word there is archaeological evidence that it was being practiced at least 3,000 years ago. An advertisement offering a gold coin as a reward to anyone tracing out a runaway slave was unearthed in the ruins of Thebes and is computed to be as old as the third millennium B.C. It was the prototype of our "lost and found" classified ad that was painted on a wall.
(i) What does the phrase "advertising colouration" mean?
(ii) What is the difference between camouflage and advertising?
(iii) When did verbal and written advertising begin in human life?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and give a suitable title to it.
(a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
     Moral self-control, and external prohibition of harmful acts, are not adequate methods of dealing with our anarchic instincts. The reason they are inadequate is that these instincts are capable of many disguises as the Devil in medieval legend, and some of these disguises deceive even the elect. The only adequate method is to discover what are the needs of our instinctive nature, and then to search for the least harmful way of satisfying them. Since spontaneity is what is most thwarted by machine, the only thing that can be provided is opportunity, the use made of opportunity must be left to the initiative of the individual. No doubt, considerable expense would be involved but it would not be comparable to the expense of war. Understanding of human nature must be the basis of any real improvement in human life. Science has done wonders in mastering the laws of the physical world, but our own nature is much less understood, as yet than the nature of stars and electrons. When science learns to understand human nature, it will be able to bring happiness into our lives which machines and the physical science have failed to create.
(i) What is the adequate method of anarchic instincts?
(ii) What should be the basis of any real improvement in human life?
(iii) How can science help humanity to achieve happiness?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and give a suitable title to it.
(b) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
      The use of atomic energy has promised vast possibilities for the mankind. In the beginning of this century Einstein advanced the theory that matter is energy and energy is matter and each may be converted into each other. He said that the atom contained vast stores of energy that may be used in a thousand way.
     Today's reactors which obtain energy from the atom are not very efficient machines. They harness only one percent of the total energy available in the atom. Even this energy which is actually obtained from the atom is enormous. It is estimated that energy in one pound uranium is equivalent to that of three million pounds of coal.
     The research in the mysteries of the atom is going on in many countries of the world. It is hoped that before long better and more efficient reactors will be built. These will be able to obtain atomic energy at an economical cost. Atoms provide compact form of fuel which provides a vast amount of energy and it also lasts longer.
     Atomic energy can be used in many ways and for many purposes. It can be used to bring peace and prosperity to the whole of this earth. It can also be used to destroy the world and its inhabitants. It can perform miracles if we have the power and wisdom to use it for peaceful purposes. If we do not possess that wisdom, man has not many years to live on this earth.
(i) What theory did Einstein present? 
(ii) What sort of reactors are required to obtain a vast amount of energy? 
(iii) What are the uses of atomic energy?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and suggest a suitable title to it.
(a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
Travelling is the best means of acquiring sound knowledge. Knowledge thus gained is the result of first hand experience. A person who travels to various cities and towns from one end of Pakistan to the other and stays at different places for sometime gets a first rate knowledge of the country, places and its people. He comes to know the geography, the fauna and flora of the various regions, the people and their ways of life and their customs and manners. He enjoys the beauties of the countryside, the variety of scenes of the vast plains, the open valleys and the snow capped peaks of the mountains. One great advantage of the knowledge so gained is that it has the warmth of the personal experience and pulsates with life as opposed to the second hand knowledge gained from books. 
(i) What does the author mean by first hand knowledge?
(ii) What is one great advantage of travelling?
(iii) What things hold attraction for the traveller?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and give a suitable title to it.
(b) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
 Once we have found the habit of looking within, listening to ourselves and responding to our own impulses and feelings, we shall not let ourselves be so easily the victims of uncontrollable emotions and effects; the inner life, instead of being either a gaping void or a ghoulish nightmare, will be open to cultivation and in both personal conduct and in art will bring us into more fruitful and loving relations which other men, whose hidden depths will flow through the symbols of arts into our own. At this point we can nourish life again more intensely from the outside too, opening our minds to every touch and sight and sound, instead of anesthetizing ourselves continually to much that goes on around us, because it has become so meaningless, so unrelated to our inner needs. With such self-discipline, we shall in time, control the tempo and rhythm of our day; control the quantity of stimuli that impinge on us; control our attention so that the things we do shall reflect our purposes and values, as human beings  not the extraneous purposes and values of the machine.
(i) How can we control our emotions? 
(ii) How can we cultivate loving relations with other men?
(iii) What is meant by the phrase "the extraneous purposes and values of the machine"?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and suggest a suitable title to it.
(a) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
     A person who is aware of his duties and rights in his society is a good citizen. He knows that he is a member of a group with which he is associated by a thousand and one ties. He realizes that he should live in harmony with others in society. He cannot live alone. He must live with his fellow human beings. But living in a society means co-operation with others. When you live in a society, you have to live as others live. You have to accept conditions and traditions that a society prescribes for its members. These conditions and standards of behaviour are for the common good and welfare of the society and individuals. Society gives some rights and some duties. A good citizen does his best to do his duty to the society. He always keeps in view the interests of his society and state. He lives a clean and honest life. He keeps away form such activities that may harm the interest of his fellow citizens. A good citizen is aware of the fact that he is indebted to his society in many ways. He knows that the labour and work of countless persons have enriched his life. His life, to a very great extent, depends on others. He has received much in material and spiritual benefits from others. It is only just and right that he should pay his debts. 
(i) Who is a good citizen?
(ii) What are the duties of a good citizen?
(iii) Why is society formed?
(iv) Make a precis of the passage and give it a suitable title.
(b) Read the passage carefully and answer the questions at the end.
    In its wider sense composition means the expression of our writing, so composition is necessarily of two kinds, oral and written. Both these forms of composition are equally important and very closely connected. We have to be careful in the choice and use of our words in speaking and in writing. If we learn to speak clearly and exactly, we shall be able to write exactly and clearly. But writing requires of greater clearness and exactness than speaking does. In speaking what we have to say can be made effective by the tone of our voice, the expression on our face and by the movement of our hands, but in writing we have to depend entirely on the sense conveyed by the words we use. Sir Francis Bacon has rightly said that writing makes an exact man. Writing tends to make a man exact because he cannot write well about a subject unless he knows the subject well. To write well you have to be clear in your own mind as to what you are going to say. 
(i) Why should we be careful in the choice and use of words?
(ii) What did Bacon mean when he said that writing makes an exact man?
(iii) How can we make our power of writing good? 
(iv) Suggest a suitable title and make a precis of the passage given above. 
(a) Write an essay on the topic "Democracy"
(b) Write an essay on the topic "Terrorism"
(a) Write an essay on the topic "Social Evils"
(b) Write an essay on the topic "Human Right Abuses"
(a) Write an essay on the topic "Science and Religion"
(b) Write an essay on the topic "Place of Women in Our Society"
(a) Write an essay on the topic "Importance of Mass Media"
(b) Write an essay on the topic "Energy Crisis in Pakistan"
(a) Write an essay on the topic "Discipline"
(b) Write a general essay that covers the following topics;
(i) Energy Crisis
(ii) Unemployment
(iii) Terrorism
(iv) Drug Addiction
iv) Black Marketing
(vi) Corruption
(vii) Inflation - Rising Prices
(viii) Over-Population
(ix) Environmental Pollution
(x) Mass Illiteracy
(xi) Drug Trafficking
(xii) Sectorianism
(xiv) Economic Crisis
(xv) Beggary
(xvi) Bribery
(xvii) Nepotism
(xviii) Tax Evasion
(xix) Violence
(xx) Poverty
(xxi) Political Instability
(xxii) Lawlessness
(xxiii) Social and Economic Crisis
(xxiv) Social and Economic Problems
(xxv) Injustice and Inequality
Write a report on "----------" with conclusion and suggestions.  
Translate the following paragraphs into English. 
Translate the following paragraphs into English.
Translate the following paragraphs into English.
Translate the following paragraphs into English.

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